Names of the week and month

6.16

Names of the week

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_days_of_the_week

Greco-Roman tradition

Day Sunday
Sōl or Helios
(Sun)
Monday
Luna or Selene
(Moon)
Tuesday
Mars or Ares
(Mars)
Wednesday
Mercurius or Hermes
(Mercury)
Thursday
Jove or Zeus
(Jupiter)
Friday
Venus or Aphrodite
(Venus)
Saturday
Saturnus or Kronos
(Saturn)
Greek ἡμέρᾱ Ἡλίου (Ἀπόλλωνος)
hēmérā Hēlíou (Apóllōnos)
Ἡλιαίᾱ
Hēliaíā
Ἀπολλωνίᾱ
Apollōníā
ἡμέρᾱ Σελήνης (Ἀρτέμιδος)
hēmérā Selḗnēs (Artémidos)
Σεληνίᾱ
Selēníā
(Ἀρτεμιτίᾱ)
(Artemitíā)
ἡμέρᾱ Ἄρεως
hēmérā Áreōs
Ἀρείᾱ
Areíā
ἡμέρᾱ Ἑρμοῦ
hēmérā Hermoû
Ἑρμ(ε)ίᾱ
Herm(e)íā
ἡμέρᾱ Διός
hēmérā Diós
Διώνη
Diṓnē
ἡμέρᾱ Ἀφροδῑ́της
hēmérā Aphrodī́tēs
Ἀφροδιτίᾱ
Aphroditíā
ἡμέρᾱ Κρόνου
hēmérā Krónou
Κρονίᾱ
Kroníā
Latin diēs Sōlis diēs Lūnae diēs Mārtis diēs Mercuriī diēs Iovis diēs Veneris diēs Sāturnī

Germanic tradition

The Germanic peoples adapted the system introduced by the Romans by substituting the Germanic deities for the Roman ones (with the exception of Saturday) in a process known as interpretatio germanica. The date of the introduction of this system is not known exactly, but it must have happened later than AD 200 but before the introduction of Christianity during the 6th to 7th centuries, i.e., during the final phase or soon after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.[17] This period is later than the Common Germanic stage, but still during the phase of undifferentiated West Germanic. The names of the days of the week in North Germanic languages were not calqued from Latin directly, but taken from the West Germanic names.

  • Sunday: Old English Sunnandæg (pronounced [ˈsunnɑndæj]), meaning "sun's day". This is a translation of the Latin phrase diēs Sōlis. English, like most of the Germanic languages, preserves the day's association with the sun. Many other European languages, including all of the Romance languages, have changed its name to the equivalent of "the Lord's day" (based on Ecclesiastical Latin dies Dominica). In both West Germanic and North Germanic mythology, the Sun is personified as Sunna/Sól.
  • Monday: Old English Mōnandæg (pronounced [ˈmoːnɑndæj]), meaning "Moon's day". This is equivalent to the Latin name diēs Lūnae. In North Germanic mythology, the Moon is personified as Máni.
  • Tuesday: Old English Tīwesdæg (pronounced [ˈtiːwezdæj]), meaning "Tiw's day". Tiw (Norse Týr) was a one-handed god associated with single combat and pledges in Norse mythology and also attested prominently in wider Germanic paganism. The name of the day is also related to the Latin name diēs Mārtis, "Day of Mars" (the Roman god of war).
  • Wednesday: Old English Wōdnesdæg (pronounced [ˈwoːdnezdæj]) meaning the day of the Germanic god Woden (known as Óðinn among the North Germanic peoples), and a prominent god of the Anglo-Saxons (and other Germanic peoples) in England until about the seventh century. This corresponds to the Latin counterpart diēs Mercuriī, "Day of Mercury", as both are deities of magic and knowledge. The German Mittwoch, the Low German Middeweek, the miðviku- in Icelandic miðvikudagur and the Finnish keskiviikko all mean "mid-week".
  • Thursday: Old English Þūnresdæg (pronounced [ˈθuːnrezdæj]), meaning 'Þunor's day'. Þunor means thunder or its personification, the Norse god known in Modern English as Thor. Similarly Dutch donderdag, German Donnerstag ('thunder's day'), Finnish torstai, and Scandinavian torsdag ('Thor's day'). "Thor's day" corresponds to Latin diēs Iovis, "day of Jupiter" (the Roman god of thunder).
  • Friday: Old English Frīgedæg (pronounced [ˈfriːjedæj]), meaning the day of the Anglo-Saxon goddess Fríge. The Norse name for the planet Venus was Friggjarstjarna, 'Frigg's star'. It is based on the Latin diēs Veneris, "Day of Venus".
  • Saturday: named after the Roman god Saturn associated with the Titan Cronus, father of Zeus and many Olympians. Its original Anglo-Saxon rendering was Sæturnesdæg (pronounced [ˈsæturnezdæj]). In Latin, it was diēs Sāturnī, "Day of Saturn". The Nordic laugardagur, leygardagur, laurdag, etc. deviate significantly as they have no reference to either the Norse or the Roman pantheon; they derive from Old Nordic laugardagr, literally "washing-day". The German Sonnabend (mainly used in northern and eastern Germany) and the Low German Sünnavend mean "Sunday Eve"; the German word Samstag derives from the name for Shabbat.

Names of the month

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_calendar

Roman Republican calendar (c. 700 BC or c. 450 BC – 46 BC)

English Latin Meaning Length in days
1st
year
(cmn.)
2nd
year
(leap)
3rd
year
(cmn.)
4th
year
(leap)
1. January I. Mensis Ianuarius Month of Janus
29
29
29
29
2. February II. Mensis Februarius Month of the Februa
28
23
28
24
  Intercalary Month   Intercalaris Mensis (Mercedonius)   Month of Wages  
27
 
27
3. March III. Mensis Martius Month of Mars
31
31
31
31
4. April IV. Mensis Aprilis Month of Aphrodite – from which the Etruscan Apru might have been derived
29
29
29
29
5. May V. Mensis Maius Month of Maia
31
31
31
31
6. June VI. Mensis Iunius Month of Juno
29
29
29
29
7. July VII. Mensis Quintilis Fifth Month (from the earlier calendar starting in March)
31
31
31
31
8. August VIII. Mensis Sextilis Sixth Month
29
29
29
29
9. September IX. Mensis September Seventh Month
29
29
29
29
10. October X. Mensis October Eighth Month
31
31
31
31
11. November XI. Mensis November Ninth Month
29
29
29
29
12. December XII. Mensis December Tenth Month
29
29
29
29
Whole year: 355 377 355 378
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